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        ag亚游集团体育赌场ZhangLiqun,,2005TheChineseeconomybegananewroundofrapidgrowthin2002,thankst,thestructuralupgradingofpersonalconsumptiontohousingandtransportationhasbroughtanewroundofstructuraladjustmentofsocialprod,thechangesinownershipstructureandinpropertyrelationshaveenabledthe,theyhavealsocauseddiversecontradicbecomeakeyissueforChina’’,,,,therewasonceatrendofeconomicheating,,,(estimated)forthefourquarters,s43percentinthefirstquarter,,,s,investmentinthesectorsofironandsteel,,,withtheinvestmentinagriculture,forestry,,,investmentinthesectorsofpower,coal,,housingandautomobileconsumptionbounceddownByearlyDecember2004,,,,,,,,’sforeigntradein2004totaled1,,,Chinaistheworld’,China’,,,,,,,theex-factorypricesoftheproduc,,,,,,,(1)ThedrasticchangesintheeconomicstructurehaveaffectedthestabilityoftheeconomicperformanceThecontr,thesupplycapacitiesofboththetraditionalconsumergoodssuchastextilesandhouseholdappliancesandtheemergingconsumergoodssuchaselectronics,communicationsequipmentandautomobiles(housingisclassifiedaspersonalinvestment)(rawmaterialsandmachineryequipment)andbasicproducts(energyandtransport),,unlikeinthepast,supplyshortageswerenotwide-ranging,,thistriggeredafastgrowthinthesectorsofironandsteel,nonferrousmetals,cement,petrochemicals,,thishasalsoallowedtheextensivemodeofgrowtreasedtheproductioncostofendproductsandmadeitmoredifficultforthesesectorstodevelop.WuJinglian"Macrocontrol"andopening-upbegan,whenevergrowthwasaccelerated,itwouldsoonslnsivewayofeconomicgrowthtosteadilyrealizethegoalofindustrializationandmodernizationAtpresent,,weshouldthinkcoollyandseriouslyaboutsolvingthepro"NewPathtoIndustrialization"Sincethe16thPartyCongress,theCentralPartyCommitteehasrepeatedlyemphasizedthatChinashouldtakea"newpathtoindustrialization".Butuntilnow,thecadresandpeopl"New"isagainst"old".Theoldpathtoindustrializationreferstotheonetakenbytheadvancedustrializedcountriesduringctthatthegrowthwasnotrealizedthroughtheinputofcapitalorotherresources,butbytheaccumulationandriseintheefficiencyofhumancapital(humanknowledgeandtalent).Accordingtotheresearchofmanyeconomistssincethe1950s,theriseofefficiencypropellingmoderneconomicgrowthismainlyduetothreereasons:First,theextensiveapplicationof"science-basedtechnologies".Beforethat,technologiiencesandhedidapplysometheoriesofthermo-dynamicsinimprovinghissteamengine,novationhasinspiredtheenthusiasmofhigh-qualitytalentandenterprisesinapplyingnewtechnologiesafterthesecondindustrialrevolution,newtechniques,newmaterials,newenergyandnewproductshavebeencreatedandwidelyused,,centurywasnotindustry,orheavyindustry,,especiallytheproductiveservicetrade,engagedinthepre-production,mireducingcosts,,theindustrializationinthelatterperiodwasalsocalled"servicetrade-industrialization".Third,theapplicationofmoderninformationtechnologyhaseantagesoflatedevelopmentandraisetheirefficiencybyusingthistechnologyundereconomicallyreasonableconditionsto"bringalongindustrializationwithinformationization."rizedby"HeavyIndustrialization"anditsAdverseConsequencesAftertheFirstFive-YearPlan,ChinafollowedthetraditionalpathtoindustrializationoftheSovietUnion,aimingatcatchingupandsurpassingtheWesterncountriesinindustrialandagri,theCentralPartyCommitteerepeatedlystressedth,,inadditiontoinadequateunderstanding,thesystemsandpoliciesrelatedtothetraditionalpathtoindustrializationandeconomicgrowthmode,whichinclude:First,thegovernmentsandofficialsatvariouslevelsstillholdthepowerofresourceallocation,whichgoagainsttheprincipleofthesocialistmarketeconomy,suchasth,the"eightindexesheadedbytotaloutput"usedduringtheplannedeconomyisstillappliedincadres’appraisal,economicdevelopmentlevelratingandassessmentofofficials’,thefinancialandtaxationsystemwiththeproductivevalueaddedtaxesasthemaintaxitem,underwhichthecentralgovernmentandlocalgovernmentssharethefinancialrevenue,isstillencouragingthegovernmentstoprioritizet,thelow-pricepolicyandfreeallocationsystemforproductionelementssuchasnaturalresources,capital,laborandforeignexchangeswhichwereaimedatdevelopingresource-,thecountryislikelyto(2001-2005),Chinakingb(themarketorthegovernment)willadjustthestructure,how(throughmarketpricechangesoradministrativedecrees)theadjustmentismade,,manygovernmentofficialsregardindustrialstructureoptimizationasdevel"heavy-industrialized"industrialmix,creatingaseriesofnegativeconsequences.

        ChinaEntrepreneurSurveySystemResearchReportNo212,2001TheChineseentrepreneurssurvey2001wasorganizedbytheChineseEntrepreneur,000questionnaireswereissuedinmid-August2001,ofwhich4,’s31provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernment,exceptHongKong,,state-owedandnon-state-ownedenterprisesrespectivelyaccountedfor31percentand69percent,andthelarge,,,generalmanagers,chiefexecutiveofficers,nincl,thesurveycoveredcorporatesystemchange,economicrestructuring,marketeconomicorderregulationandChina’wnturnintheUnitedStatesandJapan,China’’smacroeconomicperform,however,entrepreneursbelievedthatproblemssuchassaggingeffectivedemandandfinancingrestraintswerestillimpedingthedevelopmentofenterprisesandthatteadyprog’songoingeconomicrestructuringwastodevelophigh-anditutedthekeytocopingwithChina’sWTOacces,theybelievedthatcorporategovernanceneededfurtherimprovementandhopedthatthegovernmentcouldfurtherregulatemarketeconomicorder,,China’,however,thedemandforChina’sexportswa,ingeneral,,“normal”.“rathercool”or“toocool”.Thisproportionisroughlyidenticalwiththatinlastyear’ssurvey,’smacroeconomicoperationthisyearhaslargelymaintainedthegooddevelopmenttrendsince2000(seethefollowingfigure).Figure1ProportionofEntrepreneursBelievingMacroeconomicOperationWas“RatherCool”or“TooCool”inRecentYearsNiHongriInthefirsthalfofthisyear,theStateCouncildecidedtoreducebusinesstaxrateforfinancialenterprisesfrom8%to5%,,thereisstillasignificantgapbetweenthead’simminententryintotheWTOandthegeneraltrendofopeningupofthefinancialsector,itishighlynecessarytore-examineandstudytheappropriatetaxpolicyandsystemforfinancialenterprisesbasedontheeffectivenessoftheabovepolicyadjustment,thegeneralinternationalpractice,China’sparticularconditions,thedevelopmentofChina’sfinancialsector,thepromotionofthecompetitivenemsinOECDCountriesMosto(directtax)arebasicallysimilartothoseforothersectors(withslightdifferencesinparticularstipulations),buttheirtaxationsystemforindirecttax(namely,China’scirculationtax)followthelightratherthanheavytaxationrules,,thepracticeso,theOECDcountriesdonotlevyindirecttax(whichapproximatelyequalstoChina’sbusinesstax),includingmonetarysettlement,depositbusiness,lending,financialguarantee,noteandstocktrading,futures,optionsandlifeinsurance,an(excepttheUnitedStates)implementtheVATandGSTsystemsandadop(1)taxation;(2)taxexemption,whichallowsnorecoupmentfortheVATofthepurchasedgoods;(3)zerotaxrate,whichallowsrecoupmentfortheentireVATofthepurchasedgoodswhilegrantingtaxexemption;and(4)VATexemptionforfinancialservices,namely,financialservices,olicyformostfinancialbusiness,suchasmonetarysettlement,thetaxbaseofVAT,thenon-recoupingtaxationfortheincomeofthepurchasedgoodsisclosetothe“correct”taxationofthefinancialservicesand,therefore,ises,itwillnotonlybedifficulttooperatebutancialservices,suchasthecustody,,,,basedonrelevantdata,itleviesconsumptiontaxoninsuranceservic,Japantaxesitsfinancialservicesectorwithsignificantlymore,,%educationtaxlevied’sTaxationPoliciesandSystemforFinancialEnterprisesSincethestartofthereformandopeningup,andalongwiththefinancialsystemreform,therelationshipbetweenthegovern’stu,thefinancialinstitutionsnowpaytaxesandthegovernmentmakesinvestmenttosupplementth,especiallyforthestate-ownedfinancialinstitutions,to“differentiate”,therateof%%rateo,therateofenterpriseincometaxforthestate-ownedfinancialinstitutionswasadjustedto33%,whiletherateofbusinesstaxforallfinancialenterpriseswasraisedfrom5%to8%.SinceMay1,2001,therateofbusinesstaxforfinancialenterpriseswillbereducedto5%,itwillstillbehigherthanthe3%rateofbusinesstaxforthetransportation,telecommunicationandconstructionandinstallationsectorsinChina,,theChinesefinancialenterprisesbearagreatertaxburdenthanfinancialenterpriseswithforeigncapital,asthelatterenjoypreferentialtaxtreatmentintermsofenterpriseincometax,andareexemptedfromthemunicipalmaintenanc,uptothepresent,thestate-ownedfinancialinstitutionsstilltakeupadominantproportioninthefinancialsectorandholdup60%-ownedfinancialinstitutionssomehowleadsthegovernmenttoregardthestate-ownedfinancialinstitutions,especiallythestate-ownedbanks,asthe“secondarypublicfinance”orstatecoffers,,th,majoradjustmentsinthefinanceandtaxationsystemsinthepasthavebeenbasedonshort-termpublicfinanceinterests,andthetaxationsystemofthefinancial,comparedwithothersectors,t,underChina’scurrentinterestmanagementsystem,thegovernmentmaycontrolandregulatetheprofitsoffinancialenterpriseswithtaxleverag,’sFinancialEnterprisesundertheCurrentTaxationSystemAlthoughVAThasbeenadoptedinChina,duetovariousreasons,theVATsystemhasnotbeenappliedtosomeservicesectors,suchasthefinancial,transportationandconstructionsectors,asedgoodswhenpayingbusinesstax,’staxationframeworkdominatedbythecirculationtax(internationallynamedasindirecttax),financiale,theamountofcirculationtaxpaidbyfinancialenterprisesisoverRMB50billionyuan,,ncialenterprises....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ag亚游集团体育赌场

        ag亚游集团体育赌场’sAutomobileIndustryNotCompetitiveOfthemanyindustriesinChina,,Chinahasseensomefast-developingindustries,,theyaregenerallyhealthyanddynamic,andoutperformotherindustriesinproductupgrading,technologicalprogress,quality,serviceandguaranteeingconsumers’’hefactthattheyhaveexperiencedaprocessofmarketopeningandintensivecompetition,thussolvingthethreekeyproblemscrucialtothedevelopmentofanindustry:First,the"discovery","screened"throughcompetitionbeforebeing"discovered".Anyindividualsororganizationsincludingthegove’sadvan,thelearningandtrainingofenterprises’competitiveness."Competitivenesscanonlybeacquiredthroughcompetition"’smarketing,management,RDandfinancingabilitiescanonlybeacquiredandaccumulatedfromthetwistsandturnsinthecourseofcompetition,andconsequently,theorganization,,,,raiseproductquality,improveservices,,bothbelongingtoprocessing,assemblingandmanufacturingindustries,aresimilarintermsoftechnologicalandmarketstructure,forinstance,theybothhaveahighdemandforscaleeconomyan,autoindustryhasnotshowntheactivedevelopmentmom,weshould,inparticular,reflectonandexamine,inadditiontotherestrictiononthemodel,varietyandspecificationofautomobiles,thecompetitionisnotcompleteandlimited,andfrombeingunleashed,andatthesametime,"EstablishingtheCompetitiveEdgeasaBigCountryintheCourseofOpening":TheOptionfortheDevelopmentPatternofChina’sAutoIndustryundertheNewSituationThedevelopmentpatternofChina’sautoindustryunderthenewsituationshouldproceedfromthecurrentdomesticandofautoindustry,especiallythoseofthenewlydevelopedcountries,"establishingthecompetitiveedgeasabigcountryinthecourseofopening".Thismeans,firstly,,weshouldgraduallyintegratetheautoindustryintothesystemofinternationalworkingdivisionundertheframeworkofWTOsoastoadapttoandmakeuseof,notreject,,Ch,itshouldtakeanactivep,,theadvantagesofChina’sautoindustryincludetheoverallcapabilityofthemanufacturingindustry,,,strategyandpoliciesundertheopeningpolicyinordertoturnthere,,China’shugemarketwillyi,China’sdom,itcanalsoprovidespacelargeenoughforala,Chinesemarketisnotonlylarge,butalsoappearstobeobviouslymulti-layered,whichisconduc,thenewdevelopmentpatternshouldincludethefollowingfeatures:mobilesinthefuture20to30years,China’scurrentautoindustrywithmanufacturingandm,therewillbeanecessary,possible,toputitmoreprecisely,unavoidableprocessofcompetitiondesignedtoselectadvantageousenterprises,raiseenterprises’urrentindustrialbasis,thegradualentryoftransnationalcorporationsandthegovernment’srationalpolicyguidance,competitionwithintheautoindustrymaytakeondifferentcharacteristicsfromthatintheelectricalapplianceindustry,andthe;asthegovernment’sdirectinvestmentstops,variousresponsibleinvestorsincludingnon-stateinvestorsshouldbeallowedtoentertheindustry;theadministrativemonopolybydepartmentsandregionsshouldbefurtherdoneawaywithsoastoformanopenandunifieddomesticmarket;competitionordershouldberegulated,andnewsystemthactiveandfullcompetition,,wewillhaveeveryreasontopredictthatinashortperiodoftime(fiveyearsorlonger),Chinawillhaveabatchofcompetitiveenterpriseswithinitialinternationalcompetitiveness,whichincludejointventureenterprises,solely-foreigninvestedenterprises,ionalcorporationswillbeacomponentofthecountry’’sentryintoWTO,thetransnationalcorporationswillhavetwochoices:first,exportingcarstoChina,second,,’sentryintoWTO,weshouldrelaxorabolishtherestrictionontheequityandlocalizationratesetforforeigninvestorsatapropertimesothattheywouldmakemelyimportanttoproductupgrading,speedinguptransnationalcorporations’transferoftechnologiestoChina,,weshouldencouragedomesticenterprisesandenterpriseswithdomesticcapitaltocultivatetheircorecompetitivenessandsupportthemtocooperatewithforeign-investedenterprisesinvariousforms(notjustjointventure),especiallytheireffortindeveloping,upgradingandenlargingthescaleofRD,ndentde,butmoreoften,theywillcooperate,uniteandmerge,eventuallyraisingtheoverallcompetitivenessofChina’sautomobileindustry....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

        LiuShijinResearchReportNo199,2003Iftheeconomicgrowthsincethesecondhalfof2002ismerelyseenasareboundofmacroeconomicindicators,itwouldbe,chanismsisofspeciganewphaseofheavyindus,thegovernmentshouldalsomakecorrespondi’sEntryintoaNewPhaseofHeavyIndustryThenewroundofgrowthbeginningfromthes,automobile,iateinvestmentproducts,mainlytheironandsteel,nonferrousmetal,machinery,yindustryincludingelectricity,,,thegrowthrateoftheheavyindustryinthefir,().,playedavitalroleinthermicgrowth,,thecontributionratetoindustrialgrowthbythefourindustriesofmachinery,automobile,ironandsteel,andelectronics,whoseindustrialgrowthboomindexeswereamongthehighest,ngtheseindustrieshadscorednofastergrowth,theindust,the,’seconomicdevelopmentperiod,,therapidgrowthoftheChineseeconom,,thefast-growingindustrieswerethebasicindustries,infrastructure,new-generationhouseholdappliances(television,refrigeratorsandwashingmachines)andtherealestate(thoughwithsignificantbubbles).Theeconomicgrowthsloweddownafter1997,whichinfactmeantthatthefast-growingindustriesemergingin,thehousingandautomobileindustries,whicharetheleadersofthefast-growingindustrialclusters,havesee,individualres:thestartingandendingpointsofthegrowtharesolidlymarket-oriented;masspersonalconsumptionenablestherelatedindustriestoachievethe,theautomobileindustrytrulybeganplayingalead,limitedandshort-termbubble,thesefast-growingindustriesarelargelyinthreemajorsectors:thestate-ownedandstate-holdingenterprises,thejoint-ventureorwhollyforeign-ownedenterprises,,thejoint-ventureenterprisesdominatetheautomobileindustry,,dataanalysisindicatesthatinthenewroundofgrowthbeginningin2002,foreign-investedenterpriseswerethefastestgrowingones,,whesalesrevessuchasmicroandsmallbearings,low-voltageelectricinstruments,motorcycles,lowandmedium-pressurepumpvalves,automobilepartsandcivilmetersforwater,rsoftheseenterpriseswhencomparedwiththepast.

        Amongthekeyindustries,,whichwas30%,23percentagepointshigherthantheprojected7%,326billionyuan,%,marilyduetotheimplementationofaseriesofstatemacropolicymeasures,whicheffectivelypushedupthegrowthofconsumption,,thereorganizationandrestructuringofthepetro,thesuccessfullistingofthetwogroupsoninternationalmarketsbroug,thehigherpricesofpetroleumandsomepetrochemicalproductsonthedomesticmarket,drivenupbyinternationaloilpricehikes,alsoplayedanimportantpart,theindustry’stotaloutputvaluewas30%,telecommunicationproductsandinvestmentproductsthrivedinbothproductionandsales,,thesalesofcellularphonesposted140%growth,%growth,andcolorTVscreens,electroniccomponentsandintegratedcircuitsalsogrewmorethan40%.Inadditiontothefast-growingdomesticdemand,thequickrecoveryinexcies,,42%,ygrew20%intheyear,%higherthanthatof1999,12percentagepointshigherthanthenationalaverage,,,,%,theoutputoftruckstotaled764,000,,000,%higherthan1999,,000,7%,heavy-dutytruckscontinuedtoleadthegrowth,risingby74%evelsof1999,%,light,%,%,bothcons,ironandsteelproductswere,theironandsteelproductionreboundedtosomee,asthemarketandpricesgraduallybecamestable,,theou,%,%%,thetotalsteeloutputwascontrolledwithi,%,,whiletheplate-piperatioroseto42%,,thoseinoversupply,suchassmall-sizedproductsandwirerods,,theproductsinshortsupplyondomesticmarket,suchaslargeandmedium-sizedproducts,%%respectively,0,pushedbyri,%,%,%.Amongthemainbuildingmaterials,cementtotaled580milliontons,%,whileplateglasstotaled180millionweight-crates,%.In2000,,%,,,,thetotaloutputvalueofthefiveprovincesandautonomousregionsofShaanxi,Gansu,Qinghai,%in2000,rket,increasingintensecompetitionandtherelevantstatepolicies,didmuchbetterintermsofrevenue,profit,,afastgrowthtrendappearedintheelec,350billionKWH,%,hydro,%,%%,ftheyear,onthebasisofmorethan10%,326billionKWH,%,especiallysomepower-consuminglargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprises,werethe%ofalltheelectricityconsumedandcontributed70%,thereductionandexemptionofpowerconsumptionsubsidies,theconsolidationofruralpowerprices,thereducedpricesoftheruralhouseholdpowerconsumptionandthesharpriseoffuelpricesallcontributedtothefastgrowthofthedemandinthepowermarket....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuZhongyuan,WeiJianing,gyDevelopmentinChinaTherearevariouspatternsoffinancialsectorinvestmentinscienceandtechnology,whichincludeloansfromfinancialinstitutions,securitiesfinancing,venturecapitalinvestment,andcreditguarantee,amongwhichloan,nscienceandtechnologybythefinancialsectorThescienceandtechnologydevelopmentfundsofenterprisesandpublicinstitutionsinChinacomefromthreemainsources:self-raisedfundsofenterprises,,enterprisefundscons,,%,%%,,%,butitsproportioninthet%%.Thethirdlargestsourceofscienceandtechnologydevelopmentexpensesisloansfromfinancialinstitutions,,%,whileitsproportio%%.Intermsofthepatternsoffinancialsectorinvestmentinscienceandtechnology,,thefinanancialinstitutionsincreasedyearbyyear,%%,loansmadebyfinancialinstitutionsinscienceandtechnologydevelopcienceandtechnologyinthenaturalsciencesfield,andprovidedstrongsupporttosew-techenterprises,buttheaggregatescaleremainslimitedInrecentyears,China’sstockmarketdevelopedrapidlyandhasbecomethesecondlargestchannelofexogenousfinanc,therewasatotalof1271companieslistedinChinafrom1990toJuly2003,,therewere518companiesofhigh-andnew-techindustries,suchasinformationtechnologyindustry,pharmaceuticalandbio-productindustry,machineryequipmentandinstrumentmanufacturingindustries,%,%,comparedwiththetotalfinancingofscienceandtechnologyinvestment,thetotalamountoffundsraisedb,,,%ofthetotal,,%,suchasbondfinancing,venturecapitalinvestment,investmentfunds,creditguaranteesandbank-enterprisecooperationundertheguidanceofthegovernment,investmentinscienceandtechnologyt,800millionyuan"EnterpriseBondsofHigh-andNew-techIndustrialZonesinChina"wereissuedfor19infrast,over200riskinvestmentcompanieshavebeenestablished,,000privatescienceandtechnologyenterprises,theirnumberandsizecanhardlysatisfythefinaeandTechnologyEnterprisesestablishedin1998haveassistedthedevelopmentofthesmallandmedium-sizedscienceandtechnologyenterprises,,itrece,,Chinahasalreadydevelopedvariouscreditguaranteeservicesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,butmostofthemusethemethodofcreditguaranteeundertheguidanceoflocalgovernmentswithlimitedcoverage....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ag亚游集团体育赌场

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